Helminths are subcutaneous parasites that live in the human body. They feed on the host's cells, releasing toxic substances. Infection with parasites can lead to serious illness, in the worst case, death. Depending on the type of worms, the places of their dislocation differ. Some reproduce in organs, some live under the human skin, provoking the development of dermatoses.
Varieties of subcutaneous parasites and methods of infection
Parasitic skin diseases are not common types of pathologies. Despite this, cases of illness have been reported. They are most likely after visiting Asian regions and countries with hot climates. Parasites in the human body provoke an allergic reaction, accompanied by unbearable itching.
In medicine, worms are divided into two types:
- Subcutaneous. Helminths are difficult to diagnose. After infection and the maturation stage, the parasites move through the human body. The most common types of subcutaneous helminths are: iron, scabies mites, filariae, rishta.
- Dermal. After contact with human skin, parasites migrate to different parts of the body. As a result of infection with skin parasites, inflammation of the pancreas occurs, the development of scaly lichen, eczematosis, and diabetes mellitus.
Common cases include infection with a tick localized in the sebaceous glands. It is distinguished by an exit to the surface of the epidermis in the daytime to feed secretions from the cutaneous ducts.
Filariasis is the defeat of a person by parasites of the nematodosis type. It is found in the countries of the Asian region, as well as in places with a tropical climate. The most likely way of infection is when visiting resort areas. The main danger of parasites is the long incubation period. Without showing symptoms, worms can live under the skin for 5 to 7 years. Pests are distinguished by excessive vital activity, which provokes symptoms of intoxication in the patient.
In the early stages, the disease has signs of urticaria. As the worms grow and multiply, there is a loss of vision, the formation of mobile seals, and fever. In the later stages, the localization of worms is determined with the naked eye.
Dracunculiasis is a disease provoked by infection with subcutaneous helminths. They are able to live in open water. Human infestation occurs during travel, when drinking raw water from unverified sources. In an infected person, the larvae are localized under the upper layer of the epidermis. The presence of even one parasite without proper treatment leads to death. In world practice, adult helminths with a length of 100 centimeters have been registered. They are able to occupy the entire space of the stomach, liver, or block the airways.Most often, helminths are localized in the lower extremities of a person.
The main symptoms of a lesion include:
- rashes on the legs;
- the formation of blisters filled with fluid;
- intolerable itching;
- the appearance of bumps;
- purulent formations.
The main treatment is to surgically remove the helminth from the body.
The disease provokes a number of types of helminths that are found in water bodies. Infection occurs when swimming in the rivers and lakes of the African and Asian region. Another way of infection is untested drinking water. It is the source of the spread of eggs and larvae of parasites. Initially, helminths are localized under the epidermis. An allergic rash forms on the skin, accompanied by itching. As the disease develops, the larvae penetrate deep into the body. The kidneys and liver of the patient are severely affected. The disease is accompanied by night fevers, profuse sweating. Enlarged liver and deformed kidneys can help diagnose infection.
Cysticercosis is a disease associated with human infection with pork tapeworm. The parasite belongs to the category of tenacious, lives in Asian countries. For the development of an adult in the human body, penetration of 1 larva or part of a worm is sufficient. Parasites are highly regenerative, which complicates the treatment process.
The main signs of damage include urticaria, itching, general weakness, pain. Often, worms are localized under the skin, in the muscles, eyes, internal organs and the brain. During the development of an adult, a tubercle or induration forms under the skin. Over time, it can increase, it brings inconvenience. The main breeding sites for pork tapeworm are the area of the shoulders, chest, arms, palms.
The main method of infestation by worms is the penetration of larvae through insect bites or contact with animals. Temporary carriers of larvae are cats and dogs, mosquitoes act as carriers. The female worm is 30 centimeters long, the male 10 centimeters long.The development of parasites occurs under the upper layer of the epidermis.
Eggs remain on human skin with a mosquito bite. The hatched larva penetrates deep into the skin through the injured area of the skin. There she goes through all the stages of growing up. The disease is accompanied by unbearable itching. Seals are noted in the areas of localization of worms. The patient feels the movement of adults under the skin. Loss of vision is possible if affected by helminths.
Treatment of worms is performed by an operative method. After the operation, patients are shown medications that restore the skin and affected organs.
Scabies is an infection of a person with a scabies mite. The disease gets its name for the severe, unbearable itching all over the body. In places where ticks are localized, people develop redness and spots.
Tick infestation occurs through bodily contact with an infected person or his personal belongings. Diagnosis is made by visual examination of the skin and laboratory tests.At home, diagnostics can be done with iodine. When it comes into contact with the affected skin, a cobweb becomes noticeable - the path of movement of ticks under the skin of an infected person.
The main symptoms of scabies include:
- itching and redness of the skin;
- the formation of fluid-filled blisters when scratching the skin;
- localization of lesions on the hands and joints.
Treatment of the disease is long and laborious. It is almost impossible to completely eliminate parasites.
Demodectic mange is a human infection with subcutaneous ticks. They are localized in the sebaceous glands of the infected. In the initial stages, the disease can be easily confused with acne. As the mites multiply, the rash enlarges and spreads all over the face. Eyelash loss begins.
Diagnosis of demodicosis is simple. For this, a visual examination is carried out and a number of laboratory tests are carried out. Treatment of the disease is long-term. In some cases, it takes several years. Infection with ticks occurs through direct contact with the patient, the use of personal belongings or cosmetic products of the infected. The successful reproduction of ticks is facilitated by an unstable hormonal background, a weakened immune system.
Symptoms of the disease
Modern medicine distinguishes several types of subcutaneous parasites. They provoke the development of skin dermatitis and disruption of the internal organs. Depending on the pathogen in a person, symptoms appear in a peculiar way. Despite this, there are a number of signs, when they appear, it is recommended to consult a specialist.
You can learn about worms in the body by a number of signs:
- general weakness;
- temperature rise to 39 ° C;
- itching of the skin of varying degrees of intensity;
- the appearance of skin rashes;
- upset gastrointestinal tract;
- the formation of seals on the skin.
It is important to note that an early visit to a doctor allows you to quickly rid the body of parasites living under the human skin.
Subcutaneous parasites in humans are difficult to diagnose. For this reason, at the first suspicion of a lesion, it is necessary to consult a specialist. The complexity of diagnosis is directly related to the latent course of the disease. Basically, vivid symptoms appear only a few years after the defeat, which negatively affects health.
A number of symptoms indicate helminthic invasion, but there is no general clinical picture of manifestation. It is necessary to exclude the defeat of the patient with helminths with reddening of the skin areas, the appearance of constant itching, various seals on the skin.
A visit to a number of specialists allows you to make the correct diagnosis:
- infectious disease specialist;
A psychologist's consultation takes place if no deviations were found in the direction of other specialists.
To clarify the diagnosis, patients are assigned laboratory examinations:
- blood test for antigens;
- examination of a sample of the skin;
- secret research;
- scraping from the affected area.
The results of laboratory examinations can detect parasites under the skin. If in the last six months before the onset of symptoms there were travels to Asian countries or other tropical regions, this fact must be indicated to the doctor.
Diagnosis of subcutaneous parasites requires the appointment of a competent therapeutic regimen. In this situation, the use of drugs or traditional medicine methods not recommended by the attending physician is prohibited. Violation of the therapy regimen can lead to deterioration and poisoning of the body.
In medical practice, there are two methods of therapy for parasites: medication and surgical. Depending on the complexity of the lesion, the doctor uses one method or both in combination. The choice of therapeutic methods of treatment depends on the health risk of the patient and the characteristics of the parasites.
The choice of the method of therapy is influenced by:
- the number of parasites in the patient's body;
- regenerative ability of the worm;
- reproduction rate;
- localization of parasites;
- allergic reactions of the patient;
- the severity of the disease;
- possible or existing complications.
Drug treatment involves taking a course of drugs. The action of drugs involves exposure in several directions:
- Destruction of adult worms and larvae in the body, prevention of their reproduction. For this, anthelmintic medicines are used.
- Removal of inflammation and destruction of foci of infection. For this, a course of antibiotic therapy is carried out.
- Acceleration of the elimination of toxins and the removal of an allergic reaction. The patient is prescribed a course of antihistamines and glucocorticoid drugs.
- Healing of the affected areas of the skin. To accelerate the regenerative function of the epidermis, creams and ointments are used.
Surgical treatment of subcutaneous parasites is recommended in cases where there are serious complications and there is a special location of the worm. The operation has shown high efficiency in cases where it is known that the body is affected by only one individual. Most often, surgical intervention is used for dracunculiasis. The internal fluid of the worm contains toxic substances that can cause anaphylactic shock. In this case, a holistic extraction of the parasite is shown.
Infection with skin parasites in humans requires prolonged therapy. The problem can be avoided by following a number of preventive measures:
- Compliance with the rules of hygiene. Hands should be washed under running water using soap or an antiseptic. Especially after contact with unfamiliar or stray animals. Scratches, cuts and other damage to the skin should be treated with an antiseptic.
- Product processing. Fresh vegetables and fruits should be thoroughly rinsed under running water before use. It is recommended to heat fish, poultry and meat. Avoid eating raw or semi-raw meat.
- Use of proven water sources. Water from unfamiliar sources must be treated. Open water bodies and springs deserve special attention.
- Routine vaccination. Before traveling to tropical countries, it is necessary to vaccinate against major diseases.
- General use of makeup. Women should avoid sharing makeup, even with close friends.
- Swimming in open water. Swimming in polluted or untested bodies of water is prohibited. During the hot season, preference should be given to bodies of water that have been tested for water quality.
A responsible attitude to one's own health and adherence to preventive measures helps to prevent parasitic skin diseases.