Worm infestation is a group of diseases that reveals the presence of parasitic worms in the body.
Worms in humans, the treatment of which requires an integrated approach, cause their owners a lot of unpleasant sensations.Parasitic diseases caused by various helminths (worms) and/or parasitic worms are incredibly widespread among various population groups. Thus, trichinosis is often detected in people whose activities are related to hunting or animal husbandry, and diphyllobothriasis is a common disease among amateur and professional fishermen.
Attention!Sometimes it is very difficult to identify the symptoms and signs of worms in humans, and treatment can go the wrong way, since helminthic infestation is very similar to the symptomatic pathology of some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, with diseases of the liver, gall bladder and other infectious diseases.
Methods of infection
How do parasitic arthropods enter the human body? There are several known methods of infection with helminths:
- through the surface layer, that is, the earthen soil in which the parasitic worms laid their mature eggs;
- through contact with infected domestic or wild animals, birds or aquatic fauna;
- through contaminated food that has not undergone sufficient heat treatment;
- a large number of helminth eggs end up in open water bodies, which is also a source of infection;
- in some cases, the bite of stinging or blood-sucking insects is a source of infection.
However, the most common method of infection is human-to-human infection.
Today, there are more than 250 different parasitic worms that are harmful to human health. The frequency of infection depends on social conditions and climatic zones. Let us determine the degree of danger that certain types of worms pose to humans, and the treatment of which requires immediate therapeutic intervention. Let's look at the most common and dangerous types of parasitic worms in the human body:
- The pinworm is a type of parasitic and free-living nematode whose favorite habitat is the human intestine. Parasitizing the small intestine or cecum, these worms reach the ileum, where they mate. After fertilization of the female, the male ceases his vital activity, and the pregnant female, filled to capacity with eggs, continues her journey through the rectum, crawling out through the lower opening of the digestive tract. Having laid eggs on the perianal folds of the anus, the pinworm dies. This movement throughout the body lasts about one month. Traveling through the gastrointestinal tract has its consequences. The appearance of worms in humans, the symptoms and treatment of which are determined by a disease called enterobiasis, is the most common type of helminthic infection.
- Roundworms are round dioecious helminths, the overall length of which can reach 40 cm. A sexually mature female produces more than 200 thousand eggs, the favorite place of which is the gastrointestinal tract, in particular the small intestine. Roundworms provoke signs of worms in humans, the symptoms and treatment of which are defined as ascariasis - one of the types of helminthic infestation. The free movement of the parasitic worm causes irritation of the small intestine, which affects its patency. By parasitizing internal organs, roundworms affect not only the gastrointestinal tract, but are also unexpected visitors to the respiratory and/or genitourinary system. Cases of penetration of roundworms into the frontal sinus, nasolacrimal canal and external passage of the hearing aid have been recorded.
- Trichinella is one of the varieties of protostome round parasitic worms, the larval stage of which begins in the elastic tissue of the muscular system, after which mature individuals are sent to the small intestine. Infection with this type of roundworm leads to a fatal disease - trichinosis. Worms in human muscles, symptoms, treatment and diagnosis are determined by facial swelling, skin rash, myalgia and blood eosinophilia. A more severe degree of clinical pathology is characterized by damage to internal organs and the central nervous system. It is very difficult to identify Trichinella in the human body. All symptoms occur without any complications. Only after penetration into the central nervous system is it possible to determine the symptoms of worms in an adult - treatment in this case is aimed at restoring a neurological disorder, for example, ataxia or paralysis of the respiratory tract.
- Intestinal Giardia is a genus of protozoan flagellated parasites that provoke protozoal invasion in the human body with primary damage to the small intestine and are the causative agent of giardiasis. By sticking to the walls of the digestive organ, parasites feed on breakdown products. The favorite dish of mature lamblia is flour and sweet foods. Coming out with feces in the form of a spore form, the parasites enter the external environment. Often, during a biochemical laboratory examination during treatment for worms in an adult, Giardia cysts are found that enter the body through chlorinated tap water.
- The provocateur of another type of helminthic infestation is the whipworm, which affects the organs of the gastrointestinal system, causing trichocephalosis. A fertilized female parasitic worm releases up to 10, 000 eggs within a day. Larval development of the whipworm occurs without an intermediate host. Worms that enter the body damage the mucous membrane of the colon, thereby causing an acute disorder. In some cases, whipworm is a provoking causative agent of inflammation of the appendage of the cecum, that is, appendicitis. The prolonged presence of a parasitic worm can lead to anemia.
Identifying signs and symptoms of infection
When worms and parasites are identified in humans, treatment is determined by symptomatic signs and biochemical laboratory test data. Characteristic symptomatic signs of helminthic infestation:
- pale skin;
- general weakness of the body;
- itching in the anus;
- functional disorder of the intestine;
- allergic reaction;
- phase change in body temperature.
Toxic effects on the body lead to a decrease in immunity, as a result of which inflammatory processes in chronic diseases worsen.
Attention!A characteristic feature of the long stay of parasitic worms is a sharp decrease in the body weight of the helminth carrier.
Home test for helminth detection
With the help of simple testing, which must be carried out by a consulting infectious disease specialist or parasitologist, you can check for signs of possible helminthic infestation. Count the number of questions answered yes.
The risk of infection exists with 10 "yes" answers, and more than 15 is already the probability of developed helminthiasis:
- are there any rashes on the body that were not there before;
- whether you are bothered by frequent bloating, flatulence, diarrhea or constipation;
- is there constant itching in the anal passage;
- Do you often experience headaches or dizziness during the day?
- whether there are sudden impulses to nausea or gag reflex;
- Is there intermittent sleep for no apparent reason?
- whether the lymph nodes are enlarged;
- whether swelling has appeared in the legs;
- Are you worried about constant fatigue and fatigue;
- does the mucous membrane of the eyes have a yellowish tint?
- Do you feel a constant bitterness in your mouth?
- Are there any allergic manifestations – cough, rhinitis, asthma;
- Do you feel constant pain or heaviness in your stomach?
- is there an unmotivated change in temperature;
- whether there are preschool children in the family;
- are there any pets or birds;
- whether pain occurs in muscles and joints without the influence of physical activity;
- Do people around you complain about your snoring or teeth grinding at night;
- is there complete indifference to food;
- Do you often forget to process raw vegetables and fruits?
If, based on the results of home testing, there is a possibility of infection, you should contact a specialist.
Attention!Worms in the lungs of humans are considered a very dangerous and rare disease - in such cases, symptoms, treatment and signs must be determined at an early stage of infection, which is quite difficult to do.
The clinical symptoms of the disease are very similar to bronchopulmonary pathology, which manifests itself in general symptoms:
- attacks of nausea and/or vomiting;
- labored breathing;
- wheezing in the lungs;
- increased body temperature;
- productive cough and so on.
The causative agents of pulmonary lesions are various types of tapeworms, pork tapeworms and roundworms.
Helminthic infestation in the organs of vision
Itching, irritation, increased sensitivity and allergic-type burning of the sensory organ can be caused by worms in a person’s eyes; treatment of such helminthic infestation is a very labor-intensive process. It requires certain skills from a specialist, since the parasitic worm constantly migrates throughout the visual organ. Symptoms can be determined by constant irritation of the eyelids, which resemble chronic inflammation in blepharitis. How worms come out in a person after treatment for helminthic infestation of the eye can be seen in the photo.
How to get rid of helminths: treatment methods
Today, infectious disease specialists and parasitologists have more than 20 anthelmintic drugs and agents at their disposal, the treatment of which can remove worms from humans. Treatment with broad-spectrum or narrow-spectrum anthelmintic drugs makes it possible to effectively combat parasites, provided that the diagnosis is correctly established and laboratory testing of the helminthic pathogen is carried out. When choosing a therapeutic regimen, it is necessary to take into account the age criteria, gender and weight of the patient, since antihelminthic pharmacological treatments are highly toxic. Synthetic dosage forms have replaced traditional folk remedies - garlic, chenopodia oil, fern, and so on. After identifying the symptoms, treatment of worms in humans with tablets involves complete cleansing of the body from helminthic infection.
The most effective dosage forms are broad-spectrum drugs that can resist most intestinal and extraintestinal helminths. Treatment of worms in humans with tablets is conventionally divided into pharmacological combinations of antitrematodosis, anticestodosis and antinematodosis effects. Here is a list of the most popular medications that help get rid of various types of helminth infections:
- A synthetic broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug from the group of benzimidazoles, widely used in the treatment of trichuriasis, enterobiasis and other manifestations of intestinal infections caused by nematodes. Active absorption of the drug into the systemic circulation allows depletion of glycogen reserves in the tissue structure of parasitic worms. The duration of treatment and dosage are determined by a consulting infectious disease specialist or parasitologist.
- A drug from the group of imidazothiazoles is a dosage form of anthelmintic properties that has an active immunostimulating effect. The pharmacological treatment paralyzes the muscle structure of the parasite, inhibits its fumarate reductase and weakens the bioenergetic activity of helminths. The drug is prescribed as an anthelmintic when the following diagnoses are established: trichostrongyloidiasis, ascariasis, toxocariasis, necatoriasis, etc. The dosage and duration of treatment is determined according to individual characteristics.
- Pharmacological drug of the anthelmintic group of benzimidazoles. The action of the drug is aimed at blocking and paralyzing the nerve endings of helminthic parasites. Muscular paralysis does not allow worms to attach to the intestinal walls and feed on decay products. The emergence of parasitic worms occurs in a natural physiological way. The dosage form is freely available in pharmacies. However, it is advisable to consult a doctor before use.
Help from traditional medicine
A helminthic infestation is also a psychological blow that an adult tries to hide from others for various reasons. Alternative medicine will help remove worms from humans using folk remedies. To combat helminthic parasites, various herbs are used, which are no less effective than medications:
- wormwood, etc.
An equally common way to treat helminthic infestations is to consume raw pumpkin seeds. However, for full treatment, it is necessary to consume 150-200 g of pumpkin seeds daily at a time, provided that the duration of home therapy is 3-4 weeks.
The most effective traditional medicine recipes for removing worms from the body:
- A half-liter jar is filled to the middle with chopped onions and filled with vodka or an alcohol solution. After a day's exposure, the medicine is filtered and used for its intended purpose. Take 2 tablespoons 4 times a day for one week.
- Crushed pomegranate peel is poured into a glass of vodka or diluted alcohol. The medicine is taken daily, a tablespoon every 3-4 hours.
- A decoction of green walnut shells is very useful. The product, crushed in a mortar, is poured with alcohol and infused for 2-3 days until a pronounced brown color is formed. Take one spoon one hour before meals.
- Boil two cloves of chopped garlic in 200 ml of milk until completely dissolved. The medicine is taken in one dose before meals.
- A teaspoon of wormwood is brewed in 250 ml of boiling water, and after cooling, the healing remedy is ready for use. The strained liquid should be taken an hour before meals 3 times a day.
A very effective preventive remedy is freshly squeezed carrot juice, which is recommended to drink 200 ml on an empty stomach for two weeks.
Prevention of helminthic infestation
Antiparasitic prevention of worms consists of observing sanitary and hygienic standards, which not only adults, but also children must strictly adhere to:
- You need to wash your hands with soap before eating, after walking and contact with animals;
- food must undergo heat treatment before consumption;
- Street kebabs and seafood vendors should be avoided.
In addition, be sure to carry out daily ventilation of the living space and do not forget about wet cleaning.
Take care of yourself and always be healthy!